Deuterated tizanidine

Abstract

This disclosure relates to novel benzothiadiazoles, their derivatives, pharmaceutically acceptable salts, solvates, and hydrates thereof. This disclosure also provides compositions comprising a compound of this disclosure and the use of such compositions in methods of treating diseases and conditions that are beneficially treated by administering an α 2 -adrenoceptor agonist.

Claims

1 . A compound of the formula: or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt, hydrate, or solvate thereof. 2 . The compound of claim 1 , wherein any atom not designated as deuterium is present at its natural isotopic abundance. 3 . A pyrogen-free pharmaceutical composition comprising the compound of claim 1 or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt, hydrate, or solvate thereof and a pharmaceutically acceptable carrier. 4 . A method for the treatment of a patient suffering from, or susceptible to, a disease or condition selected from muscle hypertonia and muscle spasticity associated with multiple sclerosis (MS), spinal cord injury, stroke, cerebral palsy and brain injury; sleep improvement in traumatic brain injury (TBI) victims; and motor function disorders, comprising administering to the patient an effective amount of a compound of claim 1 or a composition of claim 3 . 5 . The method of claim 4 , wherein the disease or condition is selected from muscle hypertonia and muscle spasticity associated with multiple sclerosis (MS), spinal cord injury, stroke, cerebral palsy and brain injury. 6 . A method for the treatment of a patient suffering from, or susceptible to, a disease or condition selected from muscle spasticity; muscle hypertonia; sleep improvement in victims of traumatic brain injury; motor function disorders; type 2 diabetes mellitus; polycystic ovary syndrome; hyperinsulinemia; dyslipidemia; congestive heart disease; glucose intolerance; obesity; pain; and reduction of somnolence, comprising administering to the patient an effective amount of a compound of claim 1 or a composition of claim 3 . 7 . The composition of claim 3 , further comprising a second therapeutic agent that is useful in the treatment or prevention of a disease or condition selected from muscle spasticity; muscle hypertonia; sleep improvement in victims of traumatic brain injury; motor function disorders; suppression of insulin production and the treatment of metabolic disorders resulting from excessive insulin secretion, including type 2 diabetes mellitus, polycystic ovary syndrome, hyperinsulinemia, dyslipidemia, congestive heart disease, glucose intolerance and obesity; pain, notably musculoskeletal pain such as that of the lower back as well as other forms of nociceptive or inflammatory pain; and reduction of somnolence.
BACKGROUND [0001] This disclosure relates to novel benzothiadiazoles, their derivatives, pharmaceutically acceptable salts, solvates, and hydrates thereof. This disclosure also provides compositions comprising a compound of this disclosure and the use of such compositions in methods of treating diseases and conditions that are beneficially treated by administering an α 2 -adrenoceptor agonist. [0002] Tizanidine, also known as 5-chloro-4-(2-imidazolin-2-ylamino)-2,1,3-benzothiodiazole, acts as a centrally acting α 2 -adrenoceptor agonist, and is believed to reduce muscle spasticity through inhibition of presynaptic motor neurons and consequent blocking of nerve impulses. [0003] Tizanidine is currently approved for management of muscle hypertonia and muscle spasticity associated with multiple sclerosis (MS), spinal cord injury, stroke, cerebral palsy and brain injury and is in clinical trials for sleep improvement in traumatic brain injury (TBI) victims. Tizanidine is also undergoing biological testing for motor function disorders. [0004] Tizanidine is metabolized through oxidation of the imidazoline ring to the 4-imidazolone, and through oxidative N-dealkylation of the imidazoline ring to the guanidine metabolite. Approximately 95% of the administered dose is metabolized with the primary cytochrome P450 isoenzyme involved being CYP1A2. The metabolites are not known to be active. (See the FDA label for zanaflex at http://www.fda.gov/cder/foi/label/2006/020397s021,021447s002lbl.pdf, and Granfors, M T et al., Br J Clin Pharmacol. 2004 March; 57(3): 349-353.) [0005] In placebo-controlled clinical trials, the most frequently reported adverse events include dry mouth, somnolence/sedation, asthenia, hypotension, bradycardia and dizziness. Adverse events reported at a lower frequency (3% or less relative to placebo) include UTI, constipation, abnormal liver function tests, vomiting, speech disorder, amblyopia, dyskinesia, nervousness and pharyngitis. Death associated with liver failure has been a rare occurrence reported in patients treated with tizanidine. 48% of patients report sedation, which appears to be dose related. (See FDA label for zanaflex http://www.fda.gov/cder/foi/label/2006/020397s021,021447s002lbl.pdf). While somnolence and hypotension are mechanism-based AE's, it is unclear if other AE's, namely liver abnormalities, are due to parent or metabolites. [0006] Despite the beneficial activities of tizanidine, there is a continuing need for new compounds to treat the aforementioned diseases and conditions. SUMMARY [0007] Provided herein is a compound of Formula I: [0000] [0000] or a salt thereof. [0008] In some embodiments, the salt can be a pharmaceutically acceptable salt. [0009] In some embodiments, a compound of Formula I has an isotopic enrichment factor for each designated deuterium atom of at least 3500 (52.5% deuterium incorporation at each designated deuterium atom), at least 4000 (60% deuterium incorporation), at least 4500 (67.5% deuterium incorporation), at least 5000 (75% deuterium incorporation), at least 5500 (82.5% deuterium incorporation), at least 6000 (90% deuterium incorporation), at least 6333.3 (95% deuterium incorporation), at least 6466.7 (97% deuterium incorporation), at least 6600 (99% deuterium incorporation), or at least 6633.3 (99.5% deuterium incorporation). [0010] In some embodiments, any atom not designated as deuterium is present at its natural isotopic abundance. [0011] A pyrogen-free composition comprising the compound of Formula I and an acceptable carrier is also provided. [0012] In some embodiments, a compound of Formula I is formulated for pharmaceutical administration with an acceptable carrier, wherein the carrier is a pharmaceutically acceptable carrier. DETAILED DESCRIPTION Definitions [0013] The terms “ameliorate” and “treat” are used interchangeably and include therapeutic and/or prophylactic treatment. Both terms mean decrease, suppress, attenuate, diminish, arrest, or stabilize the development or progression of a disease (e.g., a disease or disorder delineated herein). [0014] “Disease” means any condition or disorder that damages or interferes with the normal function of a cell, tissue, or organ. [0015] It will be recognized that some variation of natural isotopic abundance occurs in a synthesized compound depending upon the origin of chemical materials used in the synthesis. Thus, a preparation of tizanidine will inherently contain small amounts of deuterated isotopologues. The concentration of naturally abundant stable hydrogen and carbon isotopes, notwithstanding this variation, is small and immaterial as compared to the degree of stable isotopic substitution of compounds of this disclosure. See, for instance, Wada E et al., Seikagaku 1994, 66:15; Gannes L Z et al., Comp Biochem Physiol Mol Integr Physiol 1998, 119:725. In a compound of this disclosure, when a particular position is designated as having deuterium, it is understood that the abundance of deuterium at that position is substantially greater than the natural abundance of deuterium, which is 0.015%. A position designated as having deuterium typically has a minimum isotopic enrichment factor of at least 3000 (45% deuterium incorporation) at each atom designated as deuterium in said compound. [0016] The term “isotopic enrichment factor” as used herein means the ratio between the isotopic abundance and the natural abundance of a specified isotope. [0017] In other embodiments, a compound of this disclosure has an isotopic enrichment factor for each designated deuterium atom of at least 3500 (52.5% deuterium incorporation at each designated deuterium atom), at least 4000 (60% deuterium incorporation), at least 4500 (67.5% deuterium incorporation), at least 5000 (75% deuterium incorporation), at least 5500 (82.5% deuterium incorporation), at least 6000 (90% deuterium incorporation), at least 6333.3 (95% deuterium incorporation), at least 6466.7 (97% deuterium incorporation), at least 6600 (99% deuterium incorporation), or at least 6633.3 (99.5% deuterium incorporation). [0018] In the compounds of this disclosure any atom not specifically designated as a particular isotope is meant to represent any stable isotope of that atom. Unless otherwise stated, when a position is designated specifically as “H” or “hydrogen”, the position is understood to have hydrogen at its natural abundance isotopic composition. [0019] The term “isotopologue” refers to a species that has the same chemical structure and formula as a specific compound of this disclosure, with the exception of the isotopic composition at one or more positions, e.g., H vs. D. Thus an isotopologue differs from a specific compound of this disclosure in the isotopic composition thereof. [0020] The term “compound,” when referring to a compound of this invention, refers to a collection of molecules having an identical chemical structure, except that there may be isotopic variation among the constituent atoms of the molecules. Thus, it will be clear to those of skill in the art that a compound represented by a particular chemical structure containing indicated deuterium atoms, will also contain lesser amounts of isotopologues having hydrogen atoms at one or more of the designated deuterium positions in that structure. The relative amount of such isotopologues in a compound of this invention will depend upon a number of factors including the isotopic purity of deuterated reagents used to make the compound and the efficiency of incorporation of deuterium in the various synthesis steps used to prepare the compound. However, as set forth above the relative amount of such isotopologues in toto will be less than 55% of the compound. In other embodiments, the relative amount of such isotopologues in toto will be less than 47.5%, less than 40%, less than 32.5%, less than 25%, less than 17.5%, less than 10%, less than 5%, less than 3%, less than 1%, or less than 0.5% of the compound. [0021] The invention also provides salts, of the compounds of the invention. [0022] A salt of a compound of this disclosure is formed between an acid and a basic group of the compound, such as an amino functional group, or a base and an acidic group of the compound, such as a carboxyl functional group. According to another embodiment, the compound is a pharmaceutically acceptable acid addition salt. [0023] The term “pharmaceutically acceptable,” as used herein, refers to a component that is, within the scope of sound medical judgment, suitable for use in contact with the tissues of humans and other mammals without undue toxicity, irritation, allergic response and the like, and are commensurate with a reasonable benefit/risk ratio. A “pharmaceutically acceptable salt” means any non-toxic salt that, upon administration to a recipient, is capable of providing, either directly or indirectly, a compound of this disclosure. A “pharmaceutically acceptable counterion” is an ionic portion of a salt that is not toxic when released from the salt upon administration to a recipient. [0024] Acids commonly employed to form pharmaceutically acceptable salts include inorganic acids such as hydrogen bisulfide, hydrochloric acid, hydrobromic acid, hydroiodic acid, sulfuric acid and phosphoric acid, as well as organic acids such as para-toluenesulfonic acid, salicylic acid, tartaric acid, bitartaric acid, ascorbic acid, maleic acid, besylic acid, fumaric acid, gluconic acid, glucuronic acid, formic acid, glutamic acid, methanesulfonic acid, ethanesulfonic acid, benzenesulfonic acid, lactic acid, oxalic acid, para-bromophenylsulfonic acid, carbonic acid, succinic acid, citric acid, benzoic acid and acetic acid, as well as related inorganic and organic acids. Such pharmaceutically acceptable salts thus include sulfate, pyrosulfate, bisulfate, sulfite, bisulfite, phosphate, monohydrogenphosphate, dihydrogenphosphate, metaphosphate, pyrophosphate, chloride, bromide, iodide, acetate, propionate, decanoate, caprylate, acrylate, formate, isobutyrate, caprate, heptanoate, propiolate, oxalate, malonate, succinate, suberate, sebacate, fumarate, maleate, butyne-1,4-dioate, hexyne-1,6-dioate, benzoate, chlorobenzoate, methylbenzoate, dinitrobenzoate, hydroxybenzoate, methoxybenzoate, phthalate, terephathalate, sulfonate, xylene sulfonate, phenylacetate, phenylpropionate, phenylbutyrate, citrate, lactate, β-hydroxybutyrate, glycolate, maleate, tartrate, methanesulfonate, propanesulfonate, naphthalene-1-sulfonate, naphthalene-2-sulfonate, mandelate and other salts. In one embodiment, pharmaceutically acceptable acid addition salts include those formed with mineral acids such as hydrochloric acid and hydrobromic acid, and especially those formed with organic acids such as maleic acid. [0025] The compounds of the present disclosure (e.g., compounds of Formula I), may contain an asymmetric carbon atom, for example, as the result of deuterium substitution or otherwise. As such, compounds of this disclosure can exist as either individual enantiomers, or mixtures of the two enantiomers. Accordingly, a compound of the present disclosure will include both racemic mixtures, and also individual respective stereoisomers that are substantially free from another possible stereoisomer. The term “substantially free of other stereoisomers” as used herein means less than 25% of other stereoisomers, preferably less than 10% of other stereoisomers, more preferably less than 5% of other stereoisomers and most preferably less than 2% of other stereoisomers, or less than “X”% of other stereoisomers (wherein X is a number between 0 and 100, inclusive) are present. Methods of obtaining or synthesizing an individual enantiomer for a given compound are well known in the art and may be applied as practicable to final compounds or to starting material or intermediates. [0026] The term “stable compounds,” as used herein, refers to compounds which possess stability sufficient to allow for their manufacture and which maintain the integrity of the compound for a sufficient period of time to be useful for the purposes detailed herein (e.g., formulation into therapeutic products, intermediates for use in production of therapeutic compounds, isolatable or storable intermediate compounds, treating a disease or condition responsive to therapeutic agents). [0027] “D” refers to deuterium. [0028] “Stereoisomer” refers to both enantiomers and diastereomers. [0029] “Tert”, “ t ”, and “t-” each refer to tertiary. [0030] “US” refers to the United States of America. [0031] “FDA” refers to Food and Drug Administration. [0032] “NDA” refers to New Drug Application. [0033] Throughout this specification, a variable may be referred to generally (e.g., “each R”) or may be referred to specifically (e.g., R 1 , R 2 , R 3 , etc.). Unless otherwise indicated, when a variable is referred to generally, it is meant to include all specific embodiments of that particular variable. Therapeutic Compounds [0034] The present disclosure provides a compound of the formula: [0000] [0000] Formula I, or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt, hydrate, or solvate thereof. [0035] In one embodiment, any atom not designated as deuterium in the compound set forth above is present at its natural isotopic abundance. [0036] In another set of embodiments, the compound of Formula I is isolated or purified, e.g., the compound of Formula I is present at a purity of at least 50% by weight (e.g., at least 55%, 60%, 65%, 70%, 75%, 80%, 85%, 90%, 95%, 97%, 98%, 98.5%, 99%, 99.5% or 99.9%) of the total amount of isotopologues of Formula I present, respectively. Thus, in some embodiments, a composition comprising a compound of Formula I can include a distribution of isotopologues of the compound, provided at least 50% of the isotopologues by weight are the recited compound. [0037] In some embodiments, any position in the compound of Formula I designated as having D has a minimum deuterium incorporation of at least 45% (e.g., at least 52.5%, at least 60%, at least 67.5%, at least 75%, at least 82.5%, at least 90%, at least 95%, at least 97%, at least 99%, or at least 99.5%) at the designated position(s) of the compound of Formula I. Thus, in some embodiments, a composition comprising a compound of Formula I can include a distribution of isotopologues of the compound, provided at least 45% of the isotopologues include a D at the designated position(s). [0038] In some embodiments, a compound of Formula I is “substantially free of” other isotopologues of the compound, e.g., less than 50%, less than 25%, less than 10%, less than 5%, less than 2%, less than 1%, or less than 0.5% of other isotopologues are present. [0039] The synthesis of compounds of Formula I can be readily achieved by synthetic chemists of ordinary skill. Relevant procedures and intermediates are disclosed, for instance in European Patent Publication 0 644 192. [0040] Such methods can be carried out utilizing corresponding deuterated and optionally, other isotope-containing reagents and/or intermediates to synthesize the compounds delineated herein, or invoking standard synthetic protocols known in the art for introducing isotopic atoms to a chemical structure. Exemplary Synthesis [0041] A convenient method for synthesizing compounds of Formula I is depicted in Scheme 1. [0000] [0042] The commercially available aminobenzothiadiazole (10) is condensed with d 4 -acetyl imidazolone 11 followed by hydrolysis to provide the compound of Formula 1. [0043] The deuterated reagent 11 is prepared as shown in Scheme 2. [0000] [0044] The commercially available d 4 -imidazolidinone (20) is reacted with acetic anhydride (21) to provide 11 as disclosed by Bach, T et al, Chemistry—A European Journal 2002, 8(11):2464-2475. [0045] The specific approaches and compounds shown above are not intended to be limiting. The chemical structures in the schemes herein depict variables that are hereby defined commensurately with chemical group definitions (moieties, atoms, etc.) of the corresponding position in the compound formulae herein, whether identified by the same variable name (i.e., R 1 , R 2 , R 3 , etc.) or not. The suitability of a chemical group in a compound structure for use in the synthesis of another compound is within the knowledge of one of ordinary skill in the art. [0046] Additional methods of synthesizing compounds of Formula I and their synthetic precursors, including those within routes not explicitly shown in schemes herein, are within the means of chemists of ordinary skill in the art. Synthetic chemistry transformations and protecting group methodologies (protection and deprotection) useful in synthesizing the applicable compounds are known in the art and include, for example, those described in Larock R, Comprehensive Organic Transformations , VCH Publishers (1989); Greene T W et al., Protective Groups in Organic Synthesis, 3 rd Ed., John Wiley and Sons (1999); Fieser L et al., Fieser and Fieser's Reagents for Organic Synthesis , John Wiley and Sons (1994); and Paquette L, ed., Encyclopedia of Reagents for Organic Synthesis , John Wiley and Sons (1995) and subsequent editions thereof. [0047] Combinations of substituents and variables envisioned by this disclosure are only those that result in the formation of stable compounds. Compositions [0048] The disclosure also provides pyrogen-free compositions comprising an effective amount of a compound of Formula I or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt, solvate, or hydrate of said compound; and an acceptable carrier. Preferably, a composition of this disclosure is formulated for pharmaceutical use (“a pharmaceutical composition”), wherein the carrier is a pharmaceutically acceptable carrier. The carrier(s) are “acceptable” in the sense of being compatible with the other ingredients of the formulation and, in the case of a pharmaceutically acceptable carrier, not deleterious to the recipient thereof in an amount used in the medicament. [0049] Pharmaceutically acceptable carriers, adjuvants and vehicles that may be used in the pharmaceutical compositions of this disclosure include, but are not limited to, ion exchangers, alumina, aluminum stearate, lecithin, serum proteins, such as human serum albumin, buffer substances such as phosphates, glycine, sorbic acid, potassium sorbate, partial glyceride mixtures of saturated vegetable fatty acids, water, salts or electrolytes, such as protamine sulfate, disodium hydrogen phosphate, potassium hydrogen phosphate, sodium chloride, zinc salts, colloidal silica, magnesium trisilicate, polyvinyl pyrrolidone, cellulose-based substances, polyethylene glycol, sodium carboxymethylcellulose, polyacrylates, waxes, polyethylene-polyoxypropylene-block polymers, polyethylene glycol and wool fat. [0050] If required, the solubility and bioavailability of the compounds of the present disclosure in pharmaceutical compositions may be enhanced by methods well-known in the art. One method includes the use of lipid excipients in the formulation. See “Oral Lipid-Based Formulations: Enhancing the Bioavailability of Poorly Water-Soluble Drugs (Drugs and the Pharmaceutical Sciences),” David J. Hauss, ed. Informa Healthcare, 2007; and “Role of Lipid Excipients in Modifying Oral and Parenteral Drug Delivery Basic Principles and Biological Examples,” Kishor M. Wasan, ed. Wiley-Interscience, 2006. [0051] Another known method of enhancing bioavailability is the use of an amorphous form of a compound of this disclosure optionally formulated with a poloxamer, such as LUTROL™ and PLURONIC™ (BASF Corporation), or block copolymers of ethylene oxide and propylene oxide. See U.S. Pat. No. 7,014,866; and United States patent publications 20060094744 and 20060079502. [0052] The pharmaceutical compositions of the disclosure include those suitable for oral, rectal, nasal, topical (including buccal and sublingual), vaginal or parenteral (including subcutaneous, intramuscular, intravenous and intradermal) administration. In certain embodiments, the compound of the formulae herein is administered transdermally (e.g., using a transdermal patch or iontophoretic techniques). Other formulations may conveniently be presented in unit dosage form, e.g., tablets, sustained release capsules, and in liposomes, and may be prepared by any methods well known in the art of pharmacy. See, for example, Remington's Pharmaceutical Sciences, Mack Publishing Company, Philadelphia, Pa. (17th ed. 1985). [0053] Such preparative methods include the step of bringing into association with the molecule to be administered ingredients such as the carrier that constitutes one or more accessory ingredients. In general, the compositions are prepared by uniformly and intimately bringing into association the active ingredients with liquid carriers, liposomes or finely divided solid carriers, or both, and then, if necessary, shaping the product. [0054] In certain embodiments, the compound is administered orally. Compositions of the present disclosure suitable for oral administration may be presented as discrete units such as capsules, sachets, or tablets each containing a predetermined amount of the active ingredient; a powder or granules; a solution or a suspension in an aqueous liquid or a non-aqueous liquid; an oil-in-water liquid emulsion; a water-in-oil liquid emulsion; packed in liposomes; or as a bolus, etc. Soft gelatin capsules can be useful for containing such suspensions, which may beneficially increase the rate of compound absorption. [0055] In the case of tablets for oral use, carriers that are commonly used include lactose and corn starch. Lubricating agents, such as magnesium stearate, are also typically added. For oral administration in a capsule form, useful diluents include lactose and dried cornstarch. When aqueous suspensions are administered orally, the active ingredient is combined with emulsifying and suspending agents. If desired, certain sweetening and/or flavoring and/or coloring agents may be added. [0056] Compositions suitable for oral administration include lozenges comprising the ingredients in a flavored basis, usually sucrose and acacia or tragacanth; and pastilles comprising the active ingredient in an inert basis such as gelatin and glycerin, or sucrose and acacia. [0057] Compositions suitable for parenteral administration include aqueous and non-aqueous sterile injection solutions which may contain anti-oxidants, buffers, bacteriostats and solutes which render the formulation isotonic with the blood of the intended recipient; and aqueous and non-aqueous sterile suspensions which may include suspending agents and thickening agents. The formulations may be presented in unit-dose or multi-dose containers, for example, sealed ampules and vials, and may be stored in a freeze dried (lyophilized) condition requiring only the addition of the sterile liquid carrier, for example water for injections, immediately prior to use. Extemporaneous injection solutions and suspensions may be prepared from sterile powders, granules and tablets. [0058] Such injection solutions may be in the form, for example, of a sterile injectable aqueous or oleaginous suspension. This suspension may be formulated according to techniques known in the art using suitable dispersing or wetting agents (such as, for example, Tween 80) and suspending agents. The sterile injectable preparation may also be a sterile injectable solution or suspension in a non-toxic parenterally-acceptable diluent or solvent, for example, as a solution in 1,3-butanediol. Among the acceptable vehicles and solvents that may be employed are mannitol, water, Ringer's solution and isotonic sodium chloride solution. In addition, sterile, fixed oils are conventionally employed as a solvent or suspending medium. For this purpose, any bland fixed oil may be employed including synthetic mono- or diglycerides. Fatty acids, such as oleic acid and its glyceride derivatives are useful in the preparation of injectables, as are natural pharmaceutically-acceptable oils, such as olive oil or castor oil, especially in their polyoxyethylated versions. These oil solutions or suspensions may also contain a long-chain alcohol diluent or dispersant. [0059] The pharmaceutical compositions of this disclosure may be administered in the form of suppositories for rectal administration. These compositions can be prepared by mixing a compound of this disclosure with a suitable non-irritating excipient which is solid at room temperature but liquid at the rectal temperature and therefore will melt in the rectum to release the active components. Such materials include, but are not limited to, cocoa butter, beeswax and polyethylene glycols. [0060] The pharmaceutical compositions of this disclosure may be administered by nasal aerosol or inhalation. Such compositions are prepared according to techniques well-known in the art of pharmaceutical formulation and may be prepared as solutions in saline, employing benzyl alcohol or other suitable preservatives, absorption promoters to enhance bioavailability, fluorocarbons, and/or other solubilizing or dispersing agents known in the art. See, e.g.: Rabinowitz J D and Zaffaroni A C, U.S. Pat. No. 6,803,031, assigned to Alexza Molecular Delivery Corporation. [0061] Topical administration of the pharmaceutical compositions of this disclosure is especially useful when the desired treatment involves areas or organs readily accessible by topical application. For topical application topically to the skin, the pharmaceutical composition should be formulated with a suitable ointment containing the active components suspended or dissolved in a carrier. Carriers for topical administration of the compounds of this disclosure include, but are not limited to, mineral oil, liquid petroleum, white petroleum, propylene glycol, polyoxyethylene polyoxypropylene compound, emulsifying wax, and water. Alternatively, the pharmaceutical composition can be formulated with a suitable lotion or cream containing the active compound suspended or dissolved in a carrier. Suitable carriers include, but are not limited to, mineral oil, sorbitan monostearate, polysorbate 60, cetyl esters wax, cetearyl alcohol, 2-octyldodecanol, benzyl alcohol, and water. The pharmaceutical compositions of this disclosure may also be topically applied to the lower intestinal tract by rectal suppository formulation or in a suitable enema formulation. Topically-transdermal patches and iontophoretic administration are also included in this disclosure. [0062] Application of the subject therapeutics may be local, so as to be administered at the site of interest. Various techniques can be used for providing the subject compositions at the site of interest, such as injection, use of catheters, trocars, projectiles, pluronic gel, stents, sustained drug release polymers or other device which provides for internal access. [0063] Thus, according to yet another embodiment, the compounds of this disclosure may be incorporated into compositions for coating an implantable medical device, such as prostheses, artificial valves, vascular grafts, stents, or catheters. Suitable coatings and the general preparation of coated implantable devices are known in the art and are exemplified in U.S. Pat. Nos. 6,099,562; 5,886,026; and 5,304,121. The coatings are typically biocompatible polymeric materials such as a hydrogel polymer, polymethyldisiloxane, polycaprolactone, polyethylene glycol, polylactic acid, ethylene vinyl acetate, and mixtures thereof. The coatings may optionally be further covered by a suitable topcoat of fluorosilicone, polysaccharides, polyethylene glycol, phospholipids or combinations thereof to impart controlled release characteristics in the composition. Coatings for invasive devices are to be included within the definition of pharmaceutically acceptable carrier, adjuvant or vehicle, as those terms are used herein. [0064] According to another embodiment, the disclosure provides a method of coating an implantable medical device comprising the step of contacting said device with the coating composition described above. It will be obvious to those skilled in the art that the coating of the device will occur prior to implantation into a mammal. [0065] According to another embodiment, the disclosure provides a method of impregnating an implantable drug release device comprising the step of contacting said drug release device with a compound or composition of this disclosure. Implantable drug release devices include, but are not limited to, biodegradable polymer capsules or bullets, non-degradable, diffusible polymer capsules and biodegradable polymer wafers. [0066] According to another embodiment, the disclosure provides an implantable medical device coated with a compound or a composition comprising a compound of this disclosure, such that said compound is therapeutically active. [0067] According to another embodiment, the disclosure provides an implantable drug release device impregnated with or containing a compound or a composition comprising a compound of this disclosure, such that said compound is released from said device and is therapeutically active. [0068] Where an organ or tissue is accessible because of removal from the patient, such organ or tissue may be bathed in a medium containing a composition of this disclosure, a composition of this disclosure may be painted onto the organ, or a composition of this disclosure may be applied in any other convenient way. [0069] In another embodiment, a composition of this disclosure further comprises a second therapeutic agent. The second therapeutic agent may be selected from any compound or therapeutic agent known to have or that demonstrates advantageous properties when administered with a compound having the same mechanism of action as tizanidine. Such agents include those indicated as being useful in combination with tizanidine, including but not limited to, those described in WO 2005046650, WO 2006011915, WO 2008003093, and WO 2008047208. [0070] Preferably, the second therapeutic agent is an agent useful in the treatment or prevention of a disease or condition selected from muscle spasticity; muscle hypertonia; sleep improvement in victims of traumatic brain injury; motor function disorders; suppression of insulin production and the treatment of metabolic disorders resulting from excessive insulin secretion, including type 2 diabetes mellitus, polycystic ovary syndrome, hyperinsulinemia, dyslipidemia, congestive heart disease, glucose intolerance and obesity; pain, notably musculoskeletal pain such as that of the lower back as well as other forms of nociceptive or inflammatory pain; and reduction of somnolence. [0071] In another embodiment, the disclosure provides separate dosage forms of a compound of this disclosure and one or more of any of the above-described second therapeutic agents, wherein the compound and second therapeutic agent are associated with one another. The term “associated with one another” as used herein means that the separate dosage forms are packaged together or otherwise attached to one another such that it is readily apparent that the separate dosage forms are intended to be sold and administered together (within less than 24 hours of one another, consecutively or simultaneously). [0072] In the pharmaceutical compositions of the disclosure, the compound of the present disclosure is present in an effective amount. As used herein, the term “effective amount” refers to an amount which, when administered in a proper dosing regimen, is sufficient to reduce or ameliorate the severity, duration or progression of the disorder being treated, prevent the advancement of the disorder being treated, cause the regression of the disorder being treated, or enhance or improve the prophylactic or therapeutic effect(s) of another therapy. [0073] The interrelationship of dosages for animals and humans (based on milligrams per meter squared of body surface) is described in Freireich et al., (1966) Cancer Chemother. Rep 50: 219. Body surface area may be approximately determined from height and weight of the patient. See, e.g., Scientific Tables, Geigy Pharmaceuticals, Ardsley, N.Y., 1970, 537. [0074] In one embodiment, an effective amount of a compound of this disclosure can range from about 0.04 mg to about 120 mg per treatment. In a more specific embodiment the range is from about 0.4 mg to 60 mg, or from about 0.8 mg to 24 mg, or most specifically from about 4 mg to about 12 mg per treatment. Treatment typically is administered one to three times daily. [0075] Effective doses will also vary, as recognized by those skilled in the art, depending on the diseases treated, the severity of the disease, the route of administration, the sex, age and general health condition of the patient, excipient usage, the possibility of co-usage with other therapeutic treatments such as use of other agents and the judgment of the treating physician. For example, guidance for selecting an effective dose can be determined by reference to the prescribing information for tizanidine. [0076] For pharmaceutical compositions that comprise a second therapeutic agent, an effective amount of the second therapeutic agent is between about 20% and 100% of the dosage normally utilized in a monotherapy regime using just that agent. Preferably, an effective amount is between about 70% and 100% of the normal monotherapeutic dose. The normal monotherapeutic dosages of these second therapeutic agents are well known in the art. See, e.g., Wells et al., eds., Pharmacotherapy Handbook, 2nd Edition, Appleton and Lange, Stamford, Conn. (2000); PDR Pharmacopoeia, Tarascon Pocket Pharmacopoeia 2000, Deluxe Edition, Tarascon Publishing, Loma Linda, Calif. (2000), each of which references are incorporated herein by reference in their entirety. [0077] It is expected that some of the second therapeutic agents referenced above will act synergistically with the compounds of this disclosure. When this occurs, it will allow the effective dosage of the second therapeutic agent and/or the compound of this disclosure to be reduced from that required in a monotherapy. This has the advantage of minimizing toxic side effects of either the second therapeutic agent of a compound of this disclosure, synergistic improvements in efficacy, improved ease of administration or use and/or reduced overall expense of compound preparation or formulation. Methods of Treatment [0078] In another embodiment, the disclosure provides a method of modulating the activity of α 2 -adrenergic receptors in a cell of the central nervous system, comprising contacting such a cell with one or more compounds of Formula I herein. [0079] According to another embodiment, the disclosure provides a method of treating a patient suffering from, or susceptible to, a disease that is beneficially treated by tizanidine comprising the step of administering to said patient an effective amount of a compound or a composition of this disclosure. Such diseases are well known in the art and are disclosed in, but not limited to the following patents and published applications: WO 2003030903, WO 2004035030, WO 2005046648 and U.S. Pat. No. 6,455,557. Such diseases include, but are not limited to, muscle spasticity; muscle hypertonia; sleep improvement in victims of traumatic brain injury; motor function disorders; suppression of insulin production and the treatment of metabolic disorders resulting from excessive insulin secretion, including type 2 diabetes mellitus, polycystic ovary syndrome, hyperinsulinemia, dyslipidemia, congestive heart disease, glucose intolerance and obesity; pain, notably musculoskeletal pain such as that of the lower back as well as other forms of nociceptive or inflammatory pain; and reduction of somnolence. [0080] In one particular embodiment, the method of this disclosure is used to treat a patient suffering from or susceptible to a disease or condition selected from muscle hypertonia and muscle spasticity associated with multiple sclerosis (MS), spinal cord injury, stroke, cerebral palsy and brain injury; sleep improvement in traumatic brain injury (TBI) victims; and motor function disorders. [0081] In another particular embodiment, the method of this disclosure is used to treat a patient suffering from or susceptible to a disease or condition selected from muscle hypertonia and muscle spasticity associated with multiple sclerosis (MS), spinal cord injury, stroke, cerebral palsy and brain injury. [0082] Methods delineated herein also include those wherein the patient is identified as in need of a particular stated treatment. Identifying a patient in need of such treatment can be in the judgment of a patient or a health care professional and can be subjective (e.g. opinion) or objective (e.g. measurable by a test or diagnostic method). [0083] In another embodiment, any of the above methods of treatment comprises the further step of co-administering to the patient one or more second therapeutic agents. The choice of second therapeutic agent may be made from any second therapeutic agent known to be useful for co-administration with tizanidine. The choice of second therapeutic agent is also dependent upon the particular disease or condition to be treated. [0084] The term “co-administered” as used herein means that the second therapeutic agent may be administered together with a compound of this disclosure as part of a single dosage form (such as a composition of this disclosure comprising a compound of the disclosure and an second therapeutic agent as described above) or as separate, multiple dosage forms. Alternatively, the additional agent may be administered prior to, consecutively with, or following the administration of a compound of this disclosure. In such combination therapy treatment, both the compounds of this disclosure and the second therapeutic agent(s) are administered by conventional methods. The administration of a composition of this disclosure, comprising both a compound of the disclosure and a second therapeutic agent, to a patient does not preclude the separate administration of that same therapeutic agent, any other second therapeutic agent or any compound of this disclosure to said patient at another time during a course of treatment. [0085] Effective amounts of these second therapeutic agents are well known to those skilled in the art and guidance for dosing may be found in patents and published patent applications referenced herein, as well as in Wells et al., eds., Pharmacotherapy Handbook, 2nd Edition, Appleton and Lange, Stamford, Conn. (2000); PDR Pharmacopoeia, Tarascon Pocket Pharmacopoeia 2000, Deluxe Edition, Tarascon Publishing, Loma Linda, Calif. (2000), and other medical texts. However, it is well within the skilled artisan's purview to determine the second therapeutic agent's optimal effective-amount range. [0086] In one embodiment of the disclosure, where a second therapeutic agent is administered to a subject, the effective amount of the compound of this disclosure is less than its effective amount would be where the second therapeutic agent is not administered. In another embodiment, the effective amount of the second therapeutic agent is less than its effective amount would be where the compound of this disclosure is not administered. In this way, undesired side effects associated with high doses of either agent may be minimized. Other potential advantages (including without limitation improved dosing regimens and/or reduced drug cost) will be apparent to those of skill in the art. [0087] In yet another aspect, the disclosure provides the use of a compound of Formula I alone or together with one or more of the above-described second therapeutic agents in the manufacture of a medicament, either as a single composition or as separate dosage forms, for treatment or prevention in a patient of a disease, disorder or symptom set forth above. Another aspect of the disclosure is a compound of Formula I for use in the treatment or prevention in a patient of a disease, disorder or symptom thereof delineated herein. Pharmaceutical Kits [0088] The present disclosure also provides kits for use to treat muscle hypertonia and muscle spasticity associated with multiple sclerosis (MS), spinal cord injury, stroke, cerebral palsy and brain injury; sleep improvement in traumatic brain injury (TBI) victims; and motor function disorders. These kits comprise (a) a pharmaceutical composition comprising a compound of Formula I or a salt, hydrate, or solvate thereof, wherein said pharmaceutical composition is in a container; and (b) instructions describing a method of using the pharmaceutical composition to treat muscle hypertonia and muscle spasticity associated with multiple sclerosis (MS), spinal cord injury, stroke, cerebral palsy and brain injury; sleep improvement in [0089] The container may be any vessel or other sealed or sealable apparatus that can hold said pharmaceutical composition. Examples include bottles, ampules, divided or multi-chambered holders bottles, wherein each division or chamber comprises a single dose of said composition, a divided foil packet wherein each division comprises a single dose of said composition, or a dispenser that dispenses single doses of said composition. The container can be in any conventional shape or form as known in the art which is made of a pharmaceutically acceptable material, for example a paper or cardboard box, a glass or plastic bottle or jar, a re-sealable bag (for example, to hold a “refill” of tablets for placement into a different container), or a blister pack with individual doses for pressing out of the pack according to a therapeutic schedule. The container employed can depend on the exact dosage form involved, for example a conventional cardboard box would not generally be used to hold a liquid suspension. It is feasible that more than one container can be used together in a single package to market a single dosage form. For example, tablets may be contained in a bottle, which is in turn contained within a box. In one embodiment, the container is a blister pack. [0090] The kits of this disclosure may also comprise a device to administer or to measure out a unit dose of the pharmaceutical composition. Such device may include an inhaler if said composition is an inhalable composition; a syringe and needle if said composition is an injectable composition; a syringe, spoon, pump, or a vessel with or without volume markings if said composition is an oral liquid composition; or any other measuring or delivery device appropriate to the dosage formulation of the composition present in the kit. [0091] In certain embodiment, the kits of this disclosure may comprise in a separate vessel of container a pharmaceutical composition comprising a second therapeutic agent, such as one of those listed above for use for co-administration with a compound of this disclosure. EXAMPLES Example 1 Evaluation of Metabolic Stability in Human Liver Microsomes [0092] Human liver microsomes (20 mg/mL) are obtained from Xenotech, LLC (Lenexa, Kans.). β-nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate, reduced form (NADPH), magnesium chloride (MgCl 2 ), and dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) are purchased from Sigma-Aldrich. [0093] Determination of Metabolic Stability: 7.5 mM stock solutions of test compounds are prepared in DMSO. The 7.5 mM stock solutions are diluted to 12.5 μM in acetonitrile (ACN). The 20 mg/mL human liver microsomes are diluted to 0.625 mg/mL in 0.1 M potassium phosphate buffer, pH 7.4, containing 3 mM MgCl 2 . The diluted microsomes (375 μL) are added to wells of a 96-well deep-well polypropylene plate in triplicate. Ten to 40 μL of the 12.5 μM test compound is added to the microsomes and the mixture is pre-warmed for 10 minutes. Reactions are initiated by addition of 125 μL of pre-warmed NADPH solution. The final reaction volume is 0.5 mL and contains 0.5 mg/mL human liver microsomes, 0.25-1.0 μM test compound, and 2 mM NADPH in 0.1 M potassium phosphate buffer, pH 7.4, and 3 mM MgCl 2 . The reaction mixtures are incubated at 37° C., and 50 μL aliquots are removed at 0, 5, 10, 20, and 30 minutes and added to shallow-well 96-well plates which contain 50 it of ice-cold ACN with internal standard to stop the reactions. The plates are stored at 4° C. for 20 minutes after which 100 μL of water is added to the wells of the plate before centrifugation to pellet precipitated proteins. Supernatants are transferred to another 96-well plate and analyzed for amounts of parent compound remaining by LC-MS/MS using an Applied Bio-systems API 4000 mass spectrometer. 7-ethoxycoumarin (1 μM) is used as the positive control substrate. [0094] Data analysis: The in vitro half-lives (t 1/2 s) for test compounds are calculated from the slopes of the linear regression of % parent remaining (ln) vs incubation time relationship using the following formula: [0000] in vitro t 1/2 =0.693 /k, where k =−[slope of linear regression of % parent remaining(ln) vs incubation time] [0095] Data analysis is performed using Microsoft Excel Software. [0096] The metabolic stability of compounds of Formula I is tested using pooled liver microsomal incubations. Full scan LC-MS analysis is then performed to detect major metabolites. Samples of the test compounds, exposed to pooled human liver microsomes, are analyzed using HPLC-MS (or MS/MS) detection. For determining metabolic stability, multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) is used to measure the disappearance of the test compounds. For metabolite detection, Q1 full scans are used as survey scans to detect the major metabolites. [0097] Without further description, it is believed that one of ordinary skill in the art can, using the preceding description and the illustrative examples, make and utilize the compounds of the present disclosure and practice the claimed methods. It should be understood that the foregoing discussion and examples merely present a detailed description of certain preferred embodiments. It will be apparent to those of ordinary skill in the art that various modifications and equivalents can be made without departing from the spirit and scope of the disclosure. All the patents, journal articles and other documents discussed or cited above are herein incorporated by reference.

Description

Topics

Download Full PDF Version (Non-Commercial Use)

Patent Citations (18)

    Publication numberPublication dateAssigneeTitle
    US-2004067960-A1April 08, 2004Davis Jamie Marie, Gregory Tracy Fay, Walters Michael AnthonyHeterocyclic substituted piperazines for the treatment of schizophrenia
    US-2006079502-A1April 13, 2006Steffen LangPharmaceutical compositions
    US-2006094744-A1May 04, 2006Maryanoff Cynthia A, Six Karl Pieter L S, Vandecruys Roger Petrus GPharmaceutical dosage forms of stable amorphous rapamycin like compounds
    US-2007082929-A1April 12, 2007Gant Thomas G, Sepehr SarsharInhibitors of the gastric H+, K+-atpase with enhanced therapeutic properties
    US-2007197695-A1August 23, 2007Sigma-Aldrich Co.Stabilized deuteroborane-tetrahydrofuran complex
    US-2008103122-A1May 01, 2008Schering CorporationPharmaceutical combinations for lipid management and in the treatment of atherosclerosis and hepatic steatosis
    US-5304121-AApril 19, 1994Boston Scientific CorporationDrug delivery system making use of a hydrogel polymer coating
    US-5886026-AMarch 23, 1999Angiotech Pharmaceuticals Inc.Anti-angiogenic compositions and methods of use
    US-6099562-AAugust 08, 2000Schneider (Usa) Inc.Drug coating with topcoat
    US-6221335-B1April 24, 2001Isotechnika, Inc.Method of using deuterated calcium channel blockers
    US-6440710-B1August 27, 2002The Scripps Research InstituteAntibody-catalyzed deuteration, tritiation, dedeuteration or detritiation of carbonyl compounds
    US-6455557-B1September 24, 2002Elan Pharmaceuticals, Inc.Method of reducing somnolence in patients treated with tizanidine
    US-6603008-B1August 05, 2003Pfizer Inc.Sulfamoylheleroaryl pyrazole compounds as anti-inflammatory/analgesic agents
    US-6803031-B2October 12, 2004Alexza Molecular Delivery CorporationDelivery of erectile dysfunction drugs through an inhalation route
    US-7014866-B2March 21, 2006Hoffmann-La Roche Inc.High dose solid unit oral pharmaceutical dosage form of amorphous nelfinavir mesylate and process for making same
    US-7517990-B2April 14, 2009Wako Pure Chemical Industries, Ltd.Method for deuteration of a heterocyclic ring
    WO-2007016676-A1February 08, 2007Teva Pharmaceutical Industries Ltd., Teva Pharmaceuticals Usa, Inc.Compositions de tizanidine et methodes de traitement faisant appel a ces compositions
    WO-2008021891-A2February 21, 2008Auspex Pharmaceuticals, Inc.Preparation and utility of substituted quinazoline compounds with alpha-adrenergic blocking effects

NO-Patent Citations (3)

    Title
    A. Foster et al. Advances in Drug Research, Academic Press, London, GB, Vol. 14, (1985), pages 1-40
    D. Kushner et al. Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology, (1999), Vol. 77(2), p.79-88
    Vippagunta et al., Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews, (2001), Vol. 48, page 3-26 ( on page 3).

Cited By (1)

    Publication numberPublication dateAssigneeTitle
    EP-2821072-A1January 07, 2015Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne (EPFL)Pharmakologische Stimulation zur Unterstützung und Wiederherstellung von Steh- und Gehfunktionen bei Rückenmarkserkrankungen